Donelson Caffery (September 10, 1835 December 30, 1906) was an American politician from the state of Louisiana.
Caffery was born in Franklin, Louisiana. During the United States Civil War he served in the Confederate army as a lieutenant in the thirteenth Louisiana regiment. After the war he became a lawyer and owned a sugar plantation. In 1892, he was appointed to the United States Senate from Louisiana to fill the unexpired term of Randall L. Gibson who died in office. Caffery began a full six-year term in 1894, and served in the Senate until 1901, declining to run for reelection. He was a member of the United States Democratic Party and served as chairman of the Senate Committee on enrolled bills from 1893 to 1894 and as chairman of the Senate Committee on corporations organized in the District of Columbia from 1899 to 1901. Caffery resumed practicing law and died in New Orleans, Louisiana. He was buried in the Franklin cemetery.