Elisha Mathewson (April 18, 1767 - October 14, 1853) was a United States Senator from Rhode Island. Born in Scituate, Rhode Island, he pursued an academic course and was justice of the peace of Scituate. He engaged in agricultural pursuits and in 1821 was a member of the Rhode Island House of Representatives, and served as speaker during that period. He was a member of the Rhode Island Senate in 1822, and was elected as a Democratic Republican to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of James Fenner and served from October 26, 1807, to March 3, 1811.
Mathewson resumed agricultural pursuits and died in Scituate in 1853; interment was on his farm at the north end of Moswansicut Lake, Scituate.