Henry B. Payne (November 30, 1810-September 9, 1896) was a Democratic politician from Ohio. He served in both houses of the United States Congress.
Born in Hamilton, Madison County, New York, Payne attended Hamilton College. He moved to Cleveland, Ohio by 1834, where he commenced the practice of law. A member of the Ohio Senate from 1849-1851, Payne ran unsuccessfully for the United States Senate in 1851 and for Governor of Ohio in 1857. He served a single term in the House from 1875-1877, representing the 20th District, based in Cleveland. Payne served on the 1876 Electoral Commission on the disputed presidential election between Rutherford B. Hayes and Samuel Tilden. Payne ran unsuccessfully for the presidency in 1880 and 1884, but won election in 1884 to the Senate. He served a single term and did not seek a second term.
Payne was the maternal grandfather of Frances P. Bolton and great-grandfather of Oliver Payne Bolton, both of whom later served in the United States House of Representatives.
Payne was also the great-grandfather of Michael Whitney Straight one of the USSR's best spies.
Preceded by: George H. Pendleton United States Senator (Class 3) from Ohio 1885-1891 Succeeded by: Calvin S. Brice