James B. Beck (February 13, 1822 - May 3, 1890) was a United States Representative and Senator from Kentucky.
Born in Dumfriesshire, Scotland, Beck immigrated to the United States in 1838 and settled in Wyoming County, New York. He moved to Lexington, Kentucky in 1843 and graduated from Transylvania University in 1846. Beck was admitted to the bar and commenced the practice of law in Lexington.
Beck was elected as a Democrat to the United States House of Representatives serving Kentucky's district 7. He was elected to the Fortieth and to the three succeeding Congresses, serving in all from March 4, 1867 to March 3, 1875.
In 1876, Beck was appointed a member of the commission to define the boundary line between Maryland and Virginia. He was then elected to the United States Senate in 1876, being reelected twice and serving in all from March 4, 1877, until his death in Washington, D.C., on May 3, 1890. While in the Senate, Beck was the Democratic Conference Chairman from 1885 to 1890, and the chairman of the Committee on Transportation Routes to the Seaboard. He is intered in Lexington Cemetery.
Preceded by: George S. Shanklin U.S. Representative from Kentucky's 1st District 1867 - 1875 Succeeded by: Joseph C. S. Blackburn Preceded by: John W. Stevenson U.S. Senators (class 2) from Kentucky 1877 - 1890 Succeeded by: John G. Carlisle