James D. Williams (January 16, 1808 November 20, 1880) was an American politician, most notable as the governor of Indiana from 1877 to 1880. He was a Democrat.
Williams was born in Picaway County, Ohio. He moved with his family to Knox County, Indiana at the age of 10, and lived much of the rest of his life there. He was a farmer for most of his adult life, but was always involved in local and state politics, serving as justice of the peace of Vincennes, Indiana from 1839 to 1843, as well as serving on the state board of agriculture and the state legislature. Williams was elected to the United States House of Representatives from Indiana in 1874 and served from 1875 to 1876. During this time he served as chairman of the commmittee on accounts. He did not run for reelection, but was elected governor of Indiana in 1876. Williams died in Indianapolis, Indiana shortly before his term as governor expired.