Joan Miró Joan MirÃ³ (April 20, 1893 - December 25, 1983) was a Catalan Spanish painter, sculptor and ceramist born in Barcelona.
His work has been interpreted as Surrealism, a fascination with the subconsious mind, an interest in recreating the child-like, and Catalan and Spanish pride. In numerous writing and interviews dating from the 1930s forward, MirÃ³ expressed contempt for conventional painting methods and his desire to abandon them (in his words "murder" and "assassinate" and or "rape" them) in favour of more contemporary means of expression.
As a young man, MirÃ³ was drawn towards the arts community that was gathering in Montparnasse and in 1920 moved to Paris. There, under the influence of Surrealist poets and writers, he developed his unique style: organic forms and flattened picture planes drawn with a sharp line. Generally thought of as a Surrealist because of his interest in automatism and the use of sexual symbols (for example, ovoids with wavy lines emanating from them), MirÃ³âs style was influenced in varying degrees by Surrealism and Dada, yet he rejected membership to any artistic movement in the interwar European years. AndrÃ© Breton, the founder of Surrealism, described him as "the most Surrealist of us all." Breton was known for his affinity to automatism and promoted using starvation, lack of sleep, and drugs for inducing hallucinogenic states conducive to create art that reveals the subconscious. MirÃ³ confessed to creating one of his most famous works, Harlequin's Carnival, while hallucinating due to a lack of food.
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In an interview with biographer Walter Erben, MirÃ³ expressed his dislike for art critics, saying, they "are more concerned with being philosophers than anything else. They form a preconceived opinion, then they look at the work of art. Painting merely serves as a cloak in which to wrap their emaciated philosophical systems."
In 1926, he collaborated with Max Ernst on designs for Sergei Diaghilev. With MirÃ³'s help, Ernst pioneered the technique of grattage, in which he troweled pigment onto his canvases.
MirÃ³ married Pilar Juncosa in Palma de Mallorca on October 12, 1929; their daughter Dolores was born July 17, 1931.
Shuzo Takiguchi published the first monograph on MirÃ³ in 1940.
Joan MirÃ³ won the 1954 Venice Biennale printmaking prize, and in 1980 he received the Gold Medal of Fine Arts from King