John Barney (January 18, 1785-January 26, 1857) was a U.S. Congressman from the fifth district of Maryland, serving from 1825 to 1829.
Born in Baltimore, Maryland, Barney was appointed a captain and assistant district quartermaster general in the United States Army on August 15, 1814, and served until June 15, 1815, when he was honorably discharged. He was an unsuccessful candidate for election in 1822 to the Eighteenth Congress, but was successfully elected to the Nineteenth and Twentieth Congresses, serving from March 4, 1825 to March 3, 1829. He was an unsuccessful candidate for re-election in 1828 to the Twenty-first Congress, and engaged in literary pursuits until his death in Washington, D.C.. He is interred in Greenmount Cemetery in Baltimore.