John Rankin Franklin (1820 - 1878) was a Congressional Representative for the U.S. state of Maryland.
Franklin was born in Worcester County, Maryland, and graduated from Jefferson College in 1836. He then studied law; was admitted to the bar in 1841 and opened practice in Snow Hill, Maryland. he was a member of the State House of Delegates 1840 - 1843, and served as speaker one term, then was president of the State board of public works in 1851. He was elected as a Whig to the Thirty-third Congress, and served the 1st Congressional district of Maryland from March 4, 1853 until March 3, 1855. He again became a member of the State house of delegates in 1859. Franklin was a judge of the first judicial circuit of Maryland from 1867 until his death in Snow Hill on January 11, 1878. He is buried in the churchyard of Makemie Memorial Presbyterian Church.