Joseph W. Bailey (October 6, 1862- April 13, 1929) was an American lawyer and political figure. He served as a Congressional Representative between 1891 and 1901, and as the House minority leader from 1897 until 1899. In 1901 he was elected to the United States Senate, serving until 1913.
Born in Mississippi, Bailey was admitted to the bar there in 1883. He moved to Gainesville, Texas in 1885, where he continued to practice law. He had been politically active as a Democrat in both Mississippi and his new home and had a reputation as an excellent public speaker. He was elected to the House in 1891, and to the Senate in 1901. His political career was tarnished by an assault against Senator Albert Beveridge, and subsequent investigations brought to light suspicious income and financial ties to the oil industry . The scandal led to his resignation in 1911.
After an unsuccessful election attempt to Governor of Texas in 1920, Bailey moved to Dallas, Texas to practice law. In 1929 he died in a courtroom.