Luke P. Poland (November 1, 1815 - July 2, 1887) was a United States Senator and Representative from Vermont. Born in Westford, he attended the common schools and Jericho Academy; he taught school, studied law, and was admitted to the bar in December 1836 and practiced in Morrisville. He was register of probate in 1839-1840 and was a member of the State constitutional convention in 1843; in 1844 and 1845 he was prosecuting attorney of Lamoille County, and was from 1848 to 1860 a judge of the Vermont Supreme Court, serving as chief justice from 1860 to 1865. He resigned from the court, and was appointed, and subsequently elected, as a Republican to the U.S. Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Jacob Collamer, and served from November 21, 1865, to March 3, 1867. He was then elected to the House of Representatives for the Fortieth and to the three succeeding Congresses (March 4, 1867-March 3, 1875); he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection to the Forty-fourth Congress. While in Congress, he was chairman of the Committee on Revisal and Unfinished Business (Fortieth Congress) and a member of the Committee on Revision of the Laws (Fortieth, Forty-first and Forty-third Congresses).
Poland was a member of the Vermont House of Representatives in 1878 and was a trustee of the University of Vermont at Burlington and of the State Agricultural College; he was also president of the First National Bank of St. Johnsbury for twenty years. He was again elected to the House of Representatives, serving during the Forty-eighth Congress (March 4, 1883-March 3, 1885); he was not a candidate for renomination. Luke Poland died at his country home near Waterville; interment was in Mount Pleasant Cemetery, St. Jonsbury