Philemon Thomas (February 9, 1763 - November 18, 1847) was a member of the U. S. House of Representatives representing the state of Louisiana. He served two terms as a Democrat.
Thomas was born in Virginia and later moved to Kentucky. He was a member of that state's Consitutional Convention and served in the state house and state senate. He later moved to Louisiana and led an uprising against the Spanish authorities. He served in the War of 1812 and later served two terms in Congress. He died in Baton Rouge.