Robert L. Doughton (November 7, 1863-October 1, 1954), of Alleghany County, North Carolina, sometimes known as "Farmer Bob," was a member of the United States House of Representatives from North Carolina for 42 consecutive years (1911-1953). A Democrat, Doughton was for 18 years the chairman of the U.S. House Committee on Ways and Means, and as such, co-sponsored, held hearings on, and oversaw the passage of the Social Security Act in 1935. Doughton was also instrumental in the creation of the Blue Ridge Parkway.
His elder brother was Rufus A. Doughton, who was at various times Speaker of the North Carolina House of Representatives and Lieutenant Governor of North Carolina.
See also: U.S. Congressional Delegations from North Carolina