Roger Sherman Baldwin (January 4, 1793-February 19, 1863) was an American lawyer involved in the Amistad case, who later became governor of Connecticut.
He was born in New Haven, Connecticut, received his bachelor's degree from Yale in 1811, and became a lawyer. He was a member of the Connecticut state senate 4th District, 1837-38 and a member of the Connecticut state house of representatives, 1840. He was a key figure in the Amistad case, the main lawyer of the slaves.
He became Governor of Connecticut, 1844-46 and was U.S. Senator from Connecticut, 1847-51.
He died in New Haven, and was interred at Grove Street Cemetery.
He was grandson of Roger Sherman, son of Simeon Baldwin, father of Simeon Eben Baldwin, grandfather of New York Supreme Court Justice Edward Law Baldwin Whitney, and great-grandfather of Princeton University mathematics professor Hassler Whitney.