Roscoe C. Patterson (September 15, 1876 - October 22, 1954) was a United States Representative and Senator from Missouri. Born in Springfield, Missouri, he attended public and private schools, Drury College, (Springfield) and the University of Missouri at Columbia. He graduated from the law department of Washington University (St. Louis) in 1897, was admitted to the bar the same year and commenced practice in Springfield. He was prosecuting attorney of Greene County from 1903 to 1907, and was elected as a Republican to the Sixty-seventh Congress, serving from March 4, 1921 to March 3, 1923. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1922 to the Sixty-eighth Congress and resumed the practice of law in Springfield. He was a presidential elector on the Republican ticket in 1924, and in 1925 he moved to Kansas City, Missouri. From 1925 to 1929 he was United States district attorney for the western district of Missouri; he resigned in 1929 and was elected to the U.S. Senate, serving from from March 4, 1929, to January 3, 1935. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1934. While in the Senate, he was chairman of the Committee on Mines and Mining (Seventy-second Congress).
Patterson resumed the practice of law in Springfield, was a member of the Missouri Appellate Judicial Commission, and died in Springfield in 1954. Interment was in Maple Park Cemetery, southeast of the city.