Thomas Weston Thompson (March 15, 1766 - October 1, 1821) was a United States Representative and Senator from New Hampshire. Born in Boston, he attended Dummer Academy in Byfield, Massachusetts and graduated from Harvard University in 1786. He studied law, was admitted to the bar in 1791, practiced in Salisbury, New Hampshire from 1791 to 1810, and was postmaster of Salisbury from 1798 to 1803. He was a trustee of Dartmouth College from 1801 to 1821, and moved to Concord, New Hampshire in 1810 where he continued the practice of law.
Thompson was a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in 1807 - 1808 and 1813 - 1814, serving as speaker in the latter years. He was elected as a Federalist to the Ninth U.S. Congress, serving from March 4, 1805 to March 3, 1807. He was State treasurer of New Hampshire from 1809 to 1811, and was elected to the United States Senate to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Nicholas Gilman, serving from June 24, 1814, to March 3, 1817. He died in Concord in 1821; interment was in the Old North Cemetery.