Walter A. Burleigh (October 25, 1820 - March 7, 1896) was an American physician, lawyer, and pioneer. He represented the Dakota Territory as a non-voting delegate to the United States House of Representatives.
Walter was born in Waterville, Maine, served in the Aroostook War in 1839, studied medicine in Burlington, Vermont and New York City, and began his practice in Richmond, Maine. In 1852 he moved to Kittanning, Pennsylvania. Then, around 1861, he became an Indian agent at Greenwood, Dakota Territory (in what is mow Tripp County, South Dakota).
Burleigh was elected as a Republican to the House of Representatives, serving from March 4, 1865-March 3, 1869. He was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1868. He was a member of the Dakota Territorial council in 1877, then worked as a contractor and in farming, and moved to Miles City, Montana 1879, where he practiced law.
He served as a member of the special session of the Montana Territorial council in 1887 and as a delegate to the convention that framed the constitution of Montana in 1889. He was a member of the first State House of Representatives, and served as prosecuting attorney of Custer County.
Burleigh returned to South Dakota in 1893, resumed the practice of law, and served in the State Senate. He died in Yankton, Yankton County, South Dakota, and is buried in the Yankton Cemetery. Burleigh County, North Dakota is named for him.