Abijah Gilbert (June 18, 1806 - November 23, 1881) was a United States Senator from Florida.
Born in Gilbertsville, New York, Gilbert attended Gilbertsville Academy and graduated from Hamilton College (Clinton, New York) in 1822. He spent 1822 to 1850 engaged in mercantile pursuits in New York City before moving to St. Augustine, Florida in 1865.
An early advocate of abolitionism, Gilbert was a strong supporter of the Whig Party and later the Republican Party. He was elected to represent Florida in the U.S. Senate as a Republican and served from 1869 to 1875 as part of the Reconstruction effort.
Gilbert retired from business and political life after his Senate term ended while continuing to live in St. Augustine. He moved back to Gilbertsville, New York shortly before his death in 1881.