Chester A. Arthur (October 5, 1829 - November 18, 1886) was an American politician who served as the twenty-first President of the United States. Arthur was a member of the Republican Party and worked as a lawyer before becoming the 20th vice president under James Garfield. After Garfield was mortally wounded by Charles Guiteau on July 2, 1881, and died on September 19, Arthur became president, serving until March 3, 1885.
Before entering national politics, Arthur had been Collector of Customs for the Port of New York. He was appointed by Ulysses S. Grant but was fired by Rutherford B. Hayes, under false suspicion of bribery and corruption. A political ally of Roscoe Conkling, his notable achievements in office as President included civil service reform and the passage of the Pendleton Act. The passage of this legislation earned Arthur the moniker "The Father of Civil Service."