James Kilbourne (October 19, 1770 - April 9, 1850) was an American surveyor and politician from Ohio.
Kilbourne was born in New Britain, Connecticut, and moved his family to Ohio in 1803, when he founded the city of Worthington, Ohio. In 1805 he was appointed United States surveyor of public lands. During the War of 1812, Kilbourne served as colonel of a frontier regiment. Kilbourne was elected as a Democratic-Republican to two terms in the United States House of Representatives, representing Ohio's fifth district from 1813 to 1817. He was also a member of the Ohio House of Representatives in 1823, 1824, 1838 and 1839.
He is the father of Byron Kilbourn, also a surveyor, who was a founder and mayor of Milwaukee, Wisconsin.
Preceded by: Jeremiah Morrow Member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Ohio's 5th congressional district 1813 - 1817 Succeeded by: Philemon Beecher