Jesse Houghton Metcalf (November 16, 1860 - October 9, 1942) was a United States Senator from Rhode Island. Born in Providence, he was educated in private schools there, studied textile manufacturing in Yorkshire, England, and engaged in textile manufacturing. He was a member of the Rhode Island House of Representatives from 1889 to 1891 and in 1907, and was a member of the Providence Common Council from 1888 to 1892. He was chairman of the Metropolitan Park Commission of Rhode Island from 1909 to 1924, and a member of the penal and charitable board from 1917 to 1923. In addition, he was president of Rhode Island Hospital, a trustee of the Rhode Island School of Design at Providence and of Brown University, and from 1935 to 1940 a Republican National Committeeman.
Metcalf was elected as a Republican to the U.S. on November 4, 1924, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of LeBaron B. Colt; on the same day was also elected for the term commencing March 4, 1925. He was reelected in 1930 and served from November 5, 1924, to January 3, 1937; he was an unsuccessful candidate for reelection in 1936. While in the Senate he was chairman of the Committee on Patents (Sixty-ninth and Seventieth Congresses) and a member of the Committee on Education and Labor (Seventy-first and Seventy-second Congresses). He died in Providence in 1942; interment was in Swan Point Cemetery.