Louis T. Wigfall (April 21, 1816 - February 18, 1874) was an American politician from Texas and a general during the American Civil War.
Wigfall served as a member of the Texas Legislature, United States Senate, and Confederate Senate. Wigfall was among a group of leading secessionists that became known as the Fire-Eaters, advocating the preservation and expansion of an aristocratic agricultural society based on slave labor. A South Carolina native, Wigfall once fought a duel with future Congressman Preston Brooks of that state. Brooks was shot in the hip during the duel and had to use a walking cane for the rest of his life. Brooks would famously cane Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner with it in 1856.
At the beginning of the war between the states Wigfall was a close friend of future Confederate President Jefferson Davis. He split with Davis politically as the war progressed and Davis supported an increasingly strong national government. Wigfall advocated a states rights position and moved to block the creation of the Confederate Supreme Court, fearing Davis' appointments would rule against the states. Wigfall was a close friend of Confederate General Joseph E. Johnston and frequently proposed legislation on the general's behalf. He was also an early proponent of making Robert E. Lee commander of all Confederate armies.
Wigfall was a staunch political opponent of fellow Texan Sam Houston. When Houston ran for governor in 1857, Wigfall followed him on the campaign trail, attacking his congressional record at each of Houston's stops. He accused Houston of being a traitor to the South, and claimed that he was trying to gain the presidential nomination by courting the support of Northern abolitionists.
Wigfall was a member of the Texas delegation to the Montgomery Conference, which formed the provisional government of the Confederacy. He was the original commander of the "Texas Brigade" in the Confederate Army before he resigned his post and was replaced by John Bell Hood.