S. Weir Mitchell (Born January 15, 1829 - d. 1914) was an American physician and writer.
He was son of a physician, John Kearsley Mitchell (1798-1858), and was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
He studied at the University of Pennsylvania in that city, and received the degree of M.D. at Jefferson Medical College in 1850. During the Civil War he had charge of nervous injuries and maladies at Turners Lane Hospital, Philadelphia, and at the close of the war became a specialist in neurology. In this field Weir Mitchells name became prominently associated with his introduction of the rest cure, subsequently taken up by the medical world, for nervous diseases, particularly hysteria; the treatment consisting primarily in isolation, confinement to bed, dieting and massage. His medical texts include Injuries of Nerves and Their Consequences (1872) and Fat and Blood (1877). Mitchell's disease (erythromelalgia) is named after him.
In 1863 he wrote a clever short story, combining physiological and psychological problems, entitled The Case of George Dedlow, in the Atlantic Monthly Magazine. Thenceforward Dr Weir Mitchell, as a writer, divided his attention between professional and literary pursuits. In the former field he produced monographs on rattlesnake poison, on intellectual hygiene, on injuries to the nerves, on neurasthenia, on nervous diseases of women, on the effects of gunshot wounds upon the nervous system, and on the relations between nurse, physician, and patient; while in the latter he wrote juvenile stories, several volumes of respectable verse, and prose fiction of varying merit, which, however, gave him a leading place among the American authors of the close of the 19th century. His historical novels, Hugh Wynne, Free Quaker (1897), The Adventures of Fran├žois (1898) and The Red City (1909), take high rank in this branch of fiction.